The studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate emergency management measures. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunamiresulting in coastal flooding.
Earthquakes, floods and landslides, etc. In recent years these hazards took toll of thousands of lives and caused massive destruction of property.
These have adversely affected the vital sectors of our development as agriculture, communication, irrigation, power projects and rural and urban settlements.
The time and cost overrun in some cases have been enormous but their indirect impact on our economy has never been calculated. The unique geo-climatic conditions have exposed this country to natural catastrophes. Disasters can be defined as a sudden, accidental event of great magnitude that causes considerable damage to life and property.
They are sudden, drastic and normally occur without any alarm or warning. Some disasters may be short lived such as earthquakes and some other may be of long duration, such as floods. However, irrespective of the duration of a disaster, the damage in the form of deaths, injuries and losses of property is immense.
The magnitude of the disasters can be judged by the fact that only during the past two decades, occurrences of floods, earthquakes, landslides, cyclones, etc.
Most of the disasters have a natural origin, however, some disasters are manmade as well. On this basis, disasters can be broadly classified into two groups: When disasters occur due to natural forces they are called natural disasters, over which man has hardly any control. Some common natural disasters are earthquakes, landslides floods, droughts, cyclones, etc.
Tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and wildfires are also included under natural disasters. These disasters cause enormous loss to life and property. Common examples of these disasters are train accidents, aero plane crashes, collapse of buildings, bridges, mines, tunnels, etc.
Some of the common natural disasters, their impact on environment, and their prevention, control and mitigation are discussed below: Ever since it came into existence 4.
The earth is primarily composed of three layers: The outer crust, 2. These pieces are called tectonic plates. These plates are in continuous motion over the mantle, which is known as tectonic movements.
These tectonic processes are also responsible for the mountain building processes. The plates that are moving past over one another are slowed by friction along their boundaries. Due to this, the rocks are under strain.
When the stress on the rocks exceeds certain limits, the rocks rupture and form a fault along which the rocks are displaced during tectonic movements.
This sudden rupture of the rocks releases energy in the form of earthquake waves Fig. Thus earthquake is a form of energy, which is transmitted to the surface of the earth in the form of waves called seismic waves. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists.
The instrument that records the seismic waves is called seismograph. The exact spot under the earth surface at which an earthquake originates is called the focus or hypocenter. The point on the earth surface above the focus is called the epicenter.
The Richter scale is used to measure the intensity of earthquakes. The intensity is measured on a scale of 0 to 8 and above Table Impact of Earthquake on the Environment: The destruction, an earthquake causes, depends on its magnitude and duration or the amount of shaking that occurs.
In the last years, earthquakes around the world have killed several million people. Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic natural disasters.Full Answer. Some of the most devastating man-made disasters in history include the bombing of the Chinese capital of Chongqing during World War II, .
Dec 09, · For years, that disaster has been unfolding so slowly that it's been invisible. But now you can see it: Mountain glaciers around the world are melting, along with North polar sea ice and the ice cap atop Greenland; droughts are baking the U.S.
southwest, Australia and sub-Saharan Africa; floods are devastating Bangladesh; and . In this text we will discuss these two disasters, along with correcting a few common misconceptions about nuclear accidents. The worst type of man-made disaster is caused by the use of nuclear weapons. Man-made disasters differ in scale and severity.
Speaking of classification, we can divide man-made disasters into types, too. They are societal, accidents related to hazardous materials, transportation disasters, and environmental hazards.
A natural disaster is a sudden, catastrophic event caused by natural processes of the Earth. Different types of natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and many more. There are varying estimates that peg the number of natural disasters per year across the world in the range of Dec 09, · NASA / Reuters / Handout #1.
Global Warming Nobody doubts anymore that climate change is at least in part man-made. And even if the effects of global warming remain at the most benign end of the predicted range, it will be a disaster of unprecedented proportions.