Click here for current theater and arts listings! Two car crash at RouteGifford Road forces hours-long detour. A dark grey Mazda 6 4-door sedan traveling north on Gifford Road collided with a light tan Buick 4-door sedan travelling west on Route American Legion Highway in the middle of the intersection at one of the busiest hours of the day.
History[ edit ] After the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, Jim Crow laws were introduced. Fifteen state courts obeyed ordinances that enforced the denial of housing to African American and other minority groups in white-zoned areas.
These ordinances were then made illegal in the Supreme Court case, Buchanan v. Following this decision, however, nineteen states legally supported "covenants," or agreements, between property owners to not rent or sell any homes to racial or ethnic minorities.
Although the covenants, too, were made illegal inthey were still allowed to be present in private deeds.
Congress passed the federal Fair Housing Act codified at 42 U. Its primary prohibition makes it unlawful to refuse to sell, rent to, or negotiate with any person because of that person's inclusion in a protected class. Calls for open housing were issued early in the twentieth century, but it was not until after World War II that concerted efforts to achieve it were undertaken.
Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin in the terms, conditions or privilege of the sale or rental of a dwelling. Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin.
Coercing, threatening, intimidating, or interfering with a person's enjoyment or exercise of housing rights based on discriminatory reasons or retaliating against a person or organization that aids or encourages the exercise or enjoyment of fair housing rights.
When the Fair Housing Act was first enacted, it prohibited discrimination only on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.
It has a staff of more than people located in 54 offices around the United States. FHEO funds and has working agreements with many state and local governmental agencies where "substantially equivalent" fair housing laws are in place. Under these agreements, FHEO refers complaints to the state or locality where the alleged incident occurred, and those agencies investigate and process the case instead of FHEO.
There is also a network of private, non-profit fair housing advocacy organizations throughout the country. Victims of housing discrimination need not go through HUD or any other governmental agency to pursue their rights, however.
The Fair Housing Act confers jurisdiction to hear cases on federal district courts.
The United States Department of Justice also has jurisdiction to file cases on behalf of the United States where there is a pattern and practice of discrimination or where HUD has found discrimination in a case and either party elects to go to federal court instead of continuing in the HUD administrative process.
The Fair Housing Act applies to landlords renting or leasing space in their primary residence only if the residence contains living quarters occupied or intended to be occupied by three or more other families living independently of each other, such as an owner-occupied rooming house. Enforcement[ edit ] The Fair Housing Act has been strengthened since its adoption inbut enforcement continues to be a concern among housing advocates.
According to a evaluation of Analysis of Impediments AI reports done by the Government Accountability Office, enforcement is particularly inconsistent across local jurisdictions.
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act of and Community Reinvestment Act of helped with discrimination in mortgage lending and lenders' problems with credit needs.
The Fair Housing Assistance Program of was passed to assist public agencies with processing complaints, and the Fair Housing Initiatives program of supported private and public fair housing agencies in their activities, such as auditing.
American sociologist Douglas Masseyin his essay, "The New Geography of Inequality in Urban America", argues that this new racial geography in the United States has laid the foundation for housing discrimination to occur in order to keep up the status quo.
Karafin, and Griff Tester have determined that the variety of actions that constitute housing discrimination can be classified as either exclusionary or nonexclusionary. Other discriminatory actors or institutions responsible for exclusion include real estate, insurance, and banking and lending agents and institutions.
Although this outright exclusion is often made up of subtle actions, like lying about standards for rental qualification to disqualify certain individuals, it sometimes also comes with overt verbal abuse and slurs.
These forms include unfair financing or loan qualifications or terms, steering or restricting the choices of people seeking homes, differential criteria to qualify to rent a home, and refusing to provide insurance, which would prevent the individual or family from acquiring a home.
Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD found that "the greatest share of discrimination for Hispanic and African American home seekers can still be attributed to being told units are unavailable when they are available to non-Hispanic whites and being shown and told about less units than a comparable non-minority.
Landlords and owners are still responsible for the majority of this type of housing discrimination, but neighbors and banking and lending institutions participate more. For instance, even without institutionalized exclusionary power, residential neighbors can harass and intimidate tenants.
The majority of these cases involve terms, conditions, and privileges relating to a current rental arrangement. These cases are often seen as unfairly raising the rent of a select group or allowing certain tenants privileges, like using a facility after hours or being lenient on pet policies. More terms and conditions cases involve discriminatory financing, loans, and appraisals of the individual or family's property, which is when the discriminatory actor takes advantage of the victim financially.
If an individual holding a position of an authority, such as the landlord, is responsible for the nonexclusionary discrimination, the victim is left with a feeling of powerlessness and lack of ability to get help. In addition to these types of housing discrimination, certain policies that do not discriminate on its face have also been found to cause housing discrimination in the United States.
Disparate impact is a facially neutral housing policy that negatively impacts minorities or other protected groups of people. It was first applied in housing discrimination in when the Court found Congress had intended to include liability for disparate impact discrimination in the Fair Housing Act and its recognition is consistent with the central purpose of the Act since it was amended in For example, HUD published a statement concluding that blanket prohibitions against tenants with criminal convictions would constitute disparate impact housing discrimination because incarceration rates in the United States are disproportionate between minorities and non-minorities.
One important example cited is of realtors opting to place public housing in crowded inner city minority neighborhoods instead of those with an Anglo majority due to "public and political pressure.
Housing Scholars adds that school zoning has also been named a culprit for housing segregation, and may be used as a critical venue for housing discrimination.Essay Scholarships. Perhaps you are a brilliant writer, or maybe you're just going for the most efficient way to rack up the college scholarship plombier-nemours.com way, you’ve decided that the key to funding your education lies in winning scholarship essay plombier-nemours.com scholarships are awarded in numerous fields to students of varied backgrounds.
Green buildings and sustainable cities – news and views. Middlebury College is a private institution that was founded in It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 2,, its setting is rural, and the campus size is acres.
Environmental Issues in Africa and The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility - Introduction Africa is the world's second largest and most populated continent after Asia.
Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays.
We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task. Depending on the essay topic, research can take anywhere from a few hours to several days and the writing task itself cannot be done in a few minutes.