Lady Anne was highly erudite: Together with his older brother Anthony, Francis grew up in a context determined by political power, humanist learning, and Calvinist zeal. His father had built a new house in Gorhambury in the s, and Bacon was educated there for some seven years; later, along with Anthony, he went to Trinity College, Cambridge —5where he sharply criticized the scholastic methods of academic training. Their tutor was John Whitgift, in later life Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was an astute and ambitious politician in the turbulent and poisonous political climate of Elizabethan and Jacobean England. But, despite his sometimes nefarious dealings and constant battles against debt, he was also the possessor of a brilliant mind.
His major contribution to philosophy was his application of inductive reasoning generalizations based on individual instancesthe approach used by modern science, rather than the a priori method of medieval Scholasticism and Aristotelianism.
He was an early proponent of Empiricism and the scientific method. He was therefore raised as an English gentleman, and had many contacts in the royal court of the day. He was the youngest of his father's five sons and three daughters.
Bacon's early education was conducted at home owing to poor health, which plagued him throughout his life. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge at the age of twelve living in Cambridge for three years with his older brother, Anthonyand it was there that he first met the Queen, who was impressed by his precocious intellect.
Inhe briefly entered the upper class part of Gray's Inn, but was soon granted the opportunity to travel with Sir Amias Paulet, the English ambassador at Paris throughout France, Italy and Spain, including some time spent at the University of Poitiers in France and at the French court.
There were unsubstantiated rumors that he became romantically involved during this time with Marguerite de Valois, sister of the French king.
In Februaryhe returned to England on the sudden death of his father, although his inheritance was much less than anticipated, and he returned to Gray's Inn to study law in order to support himself. He was admitted as a junior barrister inbut his ambitions which he described as to discover truth, to serve his country and to serve his church led him into politics.
During this period, he also became acquainted with Queen Elizabeth's favorite, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and byhe was acting as the earl's confidential adviser. He continued to use his contacts to advance his career, including an appointment to Queen's Counsel inalthough his money problems continued and, inhe was briefly arrested for his bad debts.
He was an astute politician and managed to sever his ties with the Duke of Essex before Essex was executed for treason in even publicly arguing against his old benefactor. With the accession of King James I after Elizabeth's death inBacon's star continued to rise and he was knighted in the same year.
Inhe married Alice Barnham, the year old daughter of a well-connected London MP he was later to disinherit her on the discovery of her infidelity. Despite the generous income from his various legal positions, old debts and his spendthrift ways kept him indebted.
He managed to negotiate the political obstacles of King James' reign, and continued to receive the King's favor, although he was not always so popular with his peers.
Sir Francis played a leading role in creating the British colonies in the New World, especially in Virginia, the Carolinas and Newfoundland. Sir Francis Bacon's public career ended in disgrace inwhen a Parliamentary Committee on the administration of the law charged him with twenty-three counts of corruption and bribery.
Although his imprisonment in the Tower of London was short-lived, he was declared incapable of holding future office or sitting in parliament, and only narrowly escaped being deprived of his titles. He was banished from London, and he retired to his estate at Gorhambury near St.
Albans to devote himself to writing and scientific work. He died, aged 66, at the home of Lord Arundel in Highgate, London on 9 Aprilleaving substantial debts.
At his funeral at Saint Michael's Church in St. Albans, over thirty famous thinkers of the day collected together their eulogies of him, suggesting that, among many political enemies, he also had many scholarly and literary friends.
Since his death, several controversies and conspiracy theories have arisen regarding Bacon, including his possible homosexuality, the possibility that he and also the Earl of Essex may have been Queen Elizabeth's illegitimate and unacknowledged son, that he was the real author of many of William Shakespeare's greatest plays, that he was deeply involved with various secret societies such as the Rosicrucians and Freemasons, and that he faked his own death.
In the 20th Century, some Ascended Master Teachings organizations in the United States went so far as to claim that Francis Bacon had never died, and had since become an Ascended Master. Work Back to Top For Bacon, the only knowledge of importance to man was empirically rooted in the natural world, and a clear system of scientific inquiry would assure man's mastery over the world.
He had a great reverence for Aristotlealthough he found Aristotelian philosophy barren, disputatious and wrong in its objectives. Bacon argued that, while philosophy at the time generally used the deductive syllogism see the section on Logic to interpret nature, it should instead proceed through inductive reasoning, from fact to axiom to law.
However, he cautioned that before beginning this induction, the philosopher must free his mind from certain false notions or tendencies which distort the truth, which he characterized as the four Idols: In Ethicshe distinguished between duty to the community an ethical matter and duty to God a religious matter.
He believed that any moral action is the action of the human will which is governed by belief and spurred on by the passionsthat good habit is what aids men in directing their will toward the good, but that no universal rules can be made, as both situations and men's characters differ. Among his earlier publication were the "Essays", the "Colours of Good and Evil", the "Meditationes Sacrae" which includes his famous aphorism, "knowledge is power", an early expression of Pragmatismand the "Proficience and Advancement of Learning".
In it, he envisioned a land where there would be greater rights for women, the abolition of slavery, elimination of debtors prisons a rather personal noteseparation of church and state, and freedom of religious and political expression.
It includes his idea for a cooperative research institution, which was instrumental in the plans and preparations for establishing the Royal Society for science in the 17th Century.
From his early studies, Bacon was persuaded that the methods and results of science as then practiced largely based on the work of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle were erroneous. While many Aristotelian ideas such as the position of the earth at the center of the universe had been overturned, his methodology based on the premise that scientific truth could be reached by way of authoritative argument was still being used.
Bacon argued strongly that truth required evidence from the real world Empiricismand urged full investigation in all cases, avoiding theories based on insufficient data.Lecture Five Francis Bacon Brief Introduction of Bacon’s Life Francis Bacon (), the founder of English materialist philosophy.
Bacon was born in the family of. The English founder of modern science who introduced the scien The system that scientist use to gather and pursue scientific Thinking about the objects and events of nature and creating a.
Lecture Five Francis Bacon. Brief Introduction of Bacon’s Life Francis Bacon (), the founder of English materialist philosophy. Bacon was born in the family of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Keeper of Privy Seal to Queen Elizabeth. Scientific method should also be distinguished from meta-methodology, which includes the values and justifications behind a particular characterization of scientific method (i.e., a methodology) — values such as objectivity, reproducibility, simplicity, or past successes.
Francis Bacon’s Philosophy of Science: An Account and a Reappraisal. La Salle, IL: Open Court, Vickers, Brian. Review of The Oxford Francis Bacon Volume VI: Philosophical Studies c. –c. , edited by Graham Rees. Isis 90 (): – Zagorin, Perez. Francis Bacon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, A good introductory survey of Bacon’s life and philosophy.
Francis Bacon (–) was one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the early modern era.