Introduction to Communication and Civic Life COM 3 credits An overview of major approaches to the analysis and criticism of contemporary cultural concerns, situating these within the broader historical contexts of communication and cultural theory.
Key ideas[ edit ] Society does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand. From any given vantage point, a river looks much the same day after day.
But actually it is constantly flowing and changing, crumbling its banks, widening and deepening its channel. The water seen one day is never the same as that seen the next. Some of it is constantly being evaporated and drawn up, to return as rain.
From year to year these changes may be scarcely perceptible. But one day, when the banks are thoroughly weakened and the rains long and heavy, the river floods, bursts its banks, and may take a new course.
Hubert Kay, Life Historical materialism builds upon the idea of historical progress that became popular in philosophy during the Enlightenmentwhich contends that the development of human society has progressed through a series of stages, from hunting and gatheringthrough pastoralism and cultivation, to commercial society.
Marx built on this foundation with the assertion that economic processes form the material base of society upon which institutions and ideas rest and from which they derive.
Thus, there is the idea that in the capitalist mode of production the behaviour of actors in the market economy means of production, distribution and exchange, the relations of production plays the major role in configuring society. Historical materialism springs from a fundamental underlying reality of human existence: However, production does not get carried out in the abstract, or by entering into arbitrary or random relations chosen at will.
How this is accomplished depends on the type of society. Production is carried out through very definite relations between people.
And, in turn, these production relations are determined by the level and character of the productive forces that are present at any given time in history. For Marx, productive forces refer to the means of production such as the tools, instruments, technology, land, raw materials, and human knowledge and abilities in terms of using these means of production.
Writers who identify with historical materialism usually postulate that society has moved through a number of types or modes of production. That is, the character of the production relations is determined by the character of the productive forces; these could be the simple tools and instruments of early human existence, or the more developed machinery and technology of present age.
The main modes of production Marx identified generally include primitive communism or tribal society a prehistoric stageancient societyfeudalismand capitalism. In each of these social stages, people interact with nature and produce their living in different ways. Any surplus from that production is allotted in different ways.
Ancient society was based on a ruling class of slave owners and a class of slaves; feudalism was based on landowners and serfs ; and capitalism based on the capitalist class and the working class. The capitalist class privately owns the means of production, distribution and exchange e.
Marx identified the production relations of society arising on the basis of given productive forces as the economic base of society. He also explained that on the foundation of the economic base there arise certain political institutions, laws, customs, culture, etc.
This superstructure not only has its origin in the economic base, but its features also ultimately correspond to the character and development of that economic base, i. It is precisely because the superstructure strongly affects the base that the base selects that superstructure.
As Charles Taylor puts it, "These two directions of influence are so far from being rivals that they are actually complementary. The functional explanation requires that the secondary factor tend to have a causal effect on the primary, for this dispositional fact is the key feature of the explanation.
According to Marxist theorists[ which? Humans are inevitably involved in productive relations roughly speaking, economic relationships or institutionswhich constitute our most decisive social relations.
These relations progress with the development of the productive forces. They are largely determined by the division of laborwhich in turn tends to determine social class.
Relations of production help determine the degree and types of the development of the forces of production, also known as the mode of production.Much has been learned about the socialization of physical education (PE) teachers using occupational socialization theory (OST).
However, important to understanding any socialization process is explaining how the roles that individuals play are socially constructed and contextually bound. OST falls short of providing a comprehensive overview of how the role of the PE teacher is defined and.
socialization and development. STUDY. PLAY.
adult socialization differs from primary socialization in that adults. often have more control over how they wish to be socialized.
Examination 3 on Skeleton, skeletal tissues, articulations/joints, and muscular system. terms. The primary question to be addressed in the following statistical analysis is the interrelatedness of the family, peer and church socialization variables as well as their impact on adult religiosity.
Table 3 presents a correlation matrix of the religious socialization variables with the four measures of religious belief and commitment. Research has documented a relation between parents’ ethnic socialization and youth’s ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity.
theory, as a result, new hires will either assimilate to the culture or leave the company (Pellet, ). For the purposes of this paper, I will focus on the socialization aspect of Onboarding programs and use. Author: Joshua A. Senne*(1) (1) Joshua A.
Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is.